Timbers of Kerala

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Scientific Name  Terminalia paniculata Roth
Trade Name  Kindal
Local Name  Pulla-maruthu, maruthi
Family  Combretaceae
Tree Size  Large
Tree Height ( m )  20 -
Tree Diameter ( cm )  90 -
Tree Distribution  West coast semi-evergreen, Moist teak bearing. Southern moist mixed deciduous forests and Southern dry mixed deciduous forests
Sapwood-Heartwood Distinction  Distinct
Sapwood Colour  Greyish-white, often blotched with yellow
Heartwood Colour  Greyish-brown
Hardness  Hard to very hard
Specific Gravity Based on Weight Over-dry and Volume Green 
Weight  Moderately heavy to heavy
Weight(Kg)/cubic meter at 12% Moisture Content  785 -
Texture  Medium
Grain  Straight to wavy
Growth Rings  Scarcely distinct
Porosity  diffuse porous
Vessel Size  Medium to small
Vessel Arrangement  Moderately few to few solitary or in radial multiples of 2, 3 or more rarely more
Vessel Diameter   -
Vessel Element Lenght  -
Pit Outline 
Pit Size 
Vessel Ray Pitting 
Ray Nature  Very fine, closely spaced
Ray Arrangement/Type 
Ray Number  -
Ray Height  -
Fibre Walls 
Fiber Length 
Modulus of Rupture in kg/cm2 (Green)  846.7
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Green)  132200
Modulus of Rupture kg/cm2 (Dry)  1117.7
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Dry)  142700
Uses  Construction purposes as beams, posts, rafters and planks; tea chests; commercial grade plywood; blackboards; agricultural implements; railway sleepers; boat building; lorry bodies

College of Forestry - KAU