Timbers of Kerala

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Scientific Name  Bischofia javanica Bl.
Trade Name  Bishopwood
Local Name  Cholavenga,Neeli,Thiruppu,Mlachethayan
Family  Euphorbiaceae
Tree Size  Medium to large
Tree Height ( m )  15 - 25
Tree Diameter ( cm )  110
Tree Distribution  Sub-Himalayan forests from Kumaon eastwards through out the Eastern and Western Ghats,in Andaman Islands
Sapwood-Heartwood Distinction  Indistinct
Sapwood Colour  Cream to reddish brown
Heartwood Colour  Red to Dark pinkish red
Hardness  Moderately hard
Specific Gravity Based on Weight Over-dry and Volume Green  0.45
Weight  Heavy
Weight(Kg)/cubic meter at 12% Moisture Content  740
Texture  Coarse textured
Grain  Straight to irregularly interlocked grained
Growth Rings  Absent
Porosity  Diffuse porous
Vessel Size  Small to medium sized
Vessel Arrangement  Solitary or in radial multiples of two to three,rarely in clusters of 3-4
Vessel Diameter   170 - 280 230
Vessel Element Lenght  440 - 680 680
Perforation  Simple
Pit Outline  Rounded
Pit Size  Large(10-18 Ám),vestured
Vessel Ray Pitting  Large,oval with wide opening and much reduced border
Ray Nature  Moderately broad,numerous and closely spaced
Ray Arrangement/Type  1-5 seriate,heterogeneous type-2,uniseriate rays made wholly of upright cells
Ray Number  2 - 3
Ray Height  615 - 940 780
Fibre Walls  Thin to thick walled,septate; minute pits on radial walls
Fiber Length 
Modulus of Rupture in kg/cm2 (Green)  490
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Green)  88400
Modulus of Rupture kg/cm2 (Dry)  882
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Dry)  113100
Uses  Construction bridges, house posts, rafters, piles, boats and dugouts, wells, wheels, poles, packing cases, fuel wood, railway sleepers, pulp making, tea chests, carving, furniture &cabinets.
  • Tree Image
  • Timber Gross View
  • TS (100X)
  • TLS(100X)
  • RLS(100X)


College of Forestry - KAU