Timbers of Kerala

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Scientific Name  Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) Taub
Trade Name  Irul
Local Name  Irul,Irumullu,Kadamaram
Family  Leguminosae
Tree Size  Medium to large
Tree Height ( m )  15 - 25
Tree Diameter ( cm )  70
Tree Distribution  Moist teak bearing, Southern moist mixed deciduous and West cost semi- evergreen forests.
Sapwood-Heartwood Distinction  Distinct
Sapwood Colour  Pale pinkish white
Heartwood Colour  Reddish brown with dark streaks
Hardness  Very hard
Specific Gravity Based on Weight Over-dry and Volume Green  0.71
Weight  Very heavy
Weight(Kg)/cubic meter at 12% Moisture Content  833
Texture  Medium to fine textured
Grain  Straight to interlocked grain
Growth Rings  Fairly distinct to indistinct demarcated by a narrow line of parenchyma
Porosity  Diffuse porous
Vessel Size  Vessels solitary and in radial multiples of two to three, small to medium sized
Vessel Arrangement  Solitary and in radial multiples of two to three. Individual vessel outline circular
Vessel Diameter   110 - 185 150
Vessel Element Lenght  165 - 550 550
Perforation  Simple
Pit Outline  Oval
Pit Size  Small to medium- sized(6-8- Ám),vestured
Vessel Ray Pitting  Vessel ray pitting alternate and pit outline oval, pits occur throughout the ray cell
Ray Nature  Fine, small and closely spaced
Ray Arrangement/Type  One to two seriate, homogeneous wholly made up of procumbent cells
Ray Number  13 - 15
Ray Height  575 - 1350 1200
Fibre Walls  Thick walled, septate with minutely bordered pits on radial walls
Fiber Length 
Modulus of Rupture in kg/cm2 (Green)  812.5
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Green)  116400
Modulus of Rupture kg/cm2 (Dry)  10978
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Dry)  142100
Uses  Bridge and building construction, poles, cross arms, fence posts, railway sleepers, boat and ship building, textile mill accessories, agricultural implements, charcoal, fuel wood, beams & rafters, wells & wheels, carts & carriages, wharf & jetty decking & other docks, joinery & interior fittings, masts, oars, spokes, felloes, knaves, mine props, pulp making, plough and plough handles.
  • Tree Image
  • Timber Gross View
  • TS (100X)
  • TLS(100X)
  • RLS(100X)


College of Forestry - KAU