Timbers of Kerala

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Scientific Name  Vateria indica L.
Trade Name  White dammar
Local Name  Vellappayin,Kunthirikkappayin, Indian copal
Family  Dipterocarpaceae
Tree Size  Large
Tree Height ( m )  20 - 30
Tree Diameter ( cm )  140
Tree Distribution  West coast tropical evergreen, West cost semi-evergreen and West coast secondary evergreen Dipterocarp forests
Sapwood-Heartwood Distinction  Distinct
Sapwood Colour  Creamy white to greyish white
Heartwood Colour  Whitish-grey turning light brownish on exposure
Hardness  Moderately hard
Specific Gravity Based on Weight Over-dry and Volume Green  0.92
Weight  Light to moderately heavy
Weight(Kg)/cubic meter at 12% Moisture Content  575
Texture  Medium coarse textured
Grain  Fairly straight to narrowly interlocked grain
Growth Rings  Indistinct
Porosity  Diffuse porous wood
Vessel Size  Vessels solitary and in radial multiples showing oblique grouping. Moderately large to small
Vessel Arrangement  Solitary and in radial multiples, often two to three vesseles grouped in oblique manner.Individual vessel outline circular
Vessel Diameter   160 - 245 210
Vessel Element Lenght  400 - 850 850
Perforation  Simple
Pit Outline  Polygonal to circular in shape
Pit Size  Medium to large (8-12 Ám),non-vestured
Vessel Ray Pitting  Vessel ray pitting rounded with much reduced border.
Ray Nature  Broad rays, visible to the naked eye few and widely spaced.Vertical gum ducts, small and scattered, filled with white deposits present
Ray Arrangement/Type  One to four seriate, heterogeneous type-ll. In multiseriate rays made up of procumbent cells with two or more marginal raws of square cells.
Ray Number  4 - 9
Ray Height  1000 - 2360 1630
Fibre Walls  Thin to thick walled , non-septate with simple inter-fibre pits.
Fiber Length 
Modulus of Rupture in kg/cm2 (Green)  573.1
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Green)  109500
Modulus of Rupture kg/cm2 (Dry)  770.8
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Dry)  129800
Uses  Temporary construction, general purpose plywood, marine plywood, tea chests, blockboard, packing cases and boxes, joinery & interior fittings, masts, oars and pulp making.
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  • TS (100X)
  • TLS(100X)
  • RLS(100X)


College of Forestry - KAU