Timbers of Kerala

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Scientific Name  Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.)Planch.
Trade Name  Indian elm, Kanju
Local Name  Aaval
Family  Ulmaceae
Tree Size  Medium to large
Tree Height ( m )  15 - 25
Tree Diameter ( cm )  80
Tree Distribution  Teak bearing forest and semi-evergreen forest
Sapwood-Heartwood Distinction  Not distinct
Sapwood Colour  Light yellow
Heartwood Colour  Yellowish grey
Hardness  Moderately hard
Specific Gravity Based on Weight Over-dry and Volume Green  0.57
Weight  Moderately heavy
Weight(Kg)/cubic meter at 12% Moisture Content  595
Texture  Medium coarse textured
Grain  Interlocked grain
Growth Rings  Distinct
Porosity  Diffuse porous
Vessel Size  Medium sized
Vessel Arrangement  solitary and in radial multiples of two to three
Vessel Diameter   135 - 190 165
Vessel Element Lenght  280 - 360 360
Perforation  Simple
Pit Outline  Rounded
Pit Size  Small to medium (6-8 Ám),non-vestured
Vessel Ray Pitting  Rounded with much reduced border
Ray Nature  Fine to moderately broad,numerous and closely spaced
Ray Arrangement/Type  1-4 cell wide ,heterogenous type-3 and storied .Body of ray made up of procumbent cells with 1 or 2 marginal row of square cells
Ray Number  5 - 7
Ray Height  240 - 350 300
Fibre Walls  Thin to thick walled,non-septate; minute pits on radial walls
Fiber Length 
Modulus of Rupture in kg/cm2 (Green)  598
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Green)  74600
Modulus of Rupture kg/cm2 (Dry)  719
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Dry)  91500
Uses  Cotton reels in textile mills, plywood, furniture and cabinets, tool handles, agricultural implements, bentwood articles construction works and toys, fuel wood, match splints & boxes, brushware, carts & carriages, lowquality furniture, temporary constructional purposes, pulp making, combs, plough and plough handles, yokes, picture frames and bobbins.
  • Tree Image
  • Timber Gross view
  • T S (100X)
  • TLS(100X)
  • RLS(100X)


College of Forestry - KAU