Timbers of Kerala

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Scientific Name  Grewia tiliifolia Vahl
Trade Name  Dhaman
Local Name  Unnam, Chadachi
Family  Tiliaceae
Tree Size  Medium sized
Tree Height ( m )  20
Tree Diameter ( cm )  60
Tree Distribution  Southern moist mixed deciduous, teak bearing and semi-evergreen forests
Sapwood-Heartwood Distinction  Distinct
Sapwood Colour  Yellowish white or pale white
Heartwood Colour  Reddish brown with dark streaks
Hardness  Hard to moderately hard
Specific Gravity Based on Weight Over-dry and Volume Green  0.68
Weight  Heavy to moderately heavy
Weight(Kg)/cubic meter at 12% Moisture Content  785
Texture  Medium coarse textured
Grain  Straight grained
Growth Rings  Distinct
Porosity  Diffuse porous
Vessel Size  Medium sized
Vessel Arrangement  Solitary and in radial multiples of two to three, rearly in tangential rows of 3-4
Vessel Diameter   140 - 220 180
Vessel Element Lenght  250 - 670 670
Perforation  Simple
Pit Outline  Polygonal
Pit Size  Small to medium (6-9 Ám),non-vestured
Vessel Ray Pitting  Alternate and pit outline polygonal and occurs throughout the ray cell
Ray Nature  Fine to broad, few and widely spaced
Ray Arrangement/Type  1-8 seriate. Aggregate rays also present. Heterogeneous with procumbent, square and upright cells.Body of ray made up of procumbent cells with 2 or 3 marginal rows of square or upright cells.
Ray Number  6 - 8
Ray Height  340 - 830 550
Fibre Walls  Thin to thick walled,non-septate; minutely bordered pits on radial walls
Fiber Length 
Modulus of Rupture in kg/cm2 (Green)  912.9
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Green)  148200
Modulus of Rupture kg/cm2 (Dry)  1301.9
Modulus of Elasticity in kg/cm2 (Dry)  163900
Uses  Boat and ship building ,beams and rafters, piles, cooperage, ballies, fence posts, brush ware, furniture and cabinets, tool handles, musical instruments, mathematical, engineering and drawing instruments, lorry and bus bodies, carts and carriages, fuel wood, boards & panels, cooperage, piles & posts, bentwood articles, masts, oars, spokes, felloes, mine props, shafts, textile mill accessories shuttles, bobbins, cricket stumps and bails.
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  • TS (100X)
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College of Forestry - KAU